Creating Waves of Awareness
This article publicizes what the homeopathic community has been waiting for a long time. Numerous HWC articles published by homeopathic members regarding their personal experimentation with electronic signals from heart rate, to pulse, to graphic analysis of plant or human response shows homeopathy works.
Finally, this news publication highlights some long awaited research with a placebo control. Specifically, demonstrating the response of a certain number of remedies [Sulphur, Aconite napellus, and Nux vomica} in potency.
We must all congratulate the scientists in Mumbai and the AYUSH team for their 30 years of work demonstrating the efficacy of a few homeopathic remedies. Where even just one works, this indicates more will be proven effective.
Photoplethysmograph (PPG) is an optically obtained plethysmograph, a volumetric measurement of an organ. A PPG is often obtained by using a pulse oximeter which illuminates the skin and measures changes in light absorption (Shelley and Shelley, 2001). A conventional pulse oximeter monitors the perfusion of blood to the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin.
Diagram of the layers of human skin
With each cardiac cycle the heart pumps blood to the periphery. Even though this pressure pulse is somewhat damped by the time it reaches the skin, it is enough to distend the arteries and arterioles in the subcutaneous tissue. If the pulse oximeter is attached without compressing the skin, a pressure pulse can also be seen from the venous plexus, as a small secondary peak.
The change in volume caused by the pressure pulse is detected by illuminating the skin with the light from a light-emitting diode (LED) and then measuring the amount of light either transmitted or reflected to a photodiode. Each cardiac cycle appears as a peak, as seen in the figure. Because blood flow to the skin can be modulated by multiple other physiological systems, the PPG can also be used to monitor breathing, hypovolemia, and other circulatory conditions (Reisner, et al., 2008) . Additionally, the shape of the PPG waveform differs from subject to subject, and varies with the location and manner in which the pulse oximeter is attached.
Researches done by BARC, Regional Research Institute of Central Council for Research in homoeopathy, Mumbai, National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata and Fr Muller Homoeopathic Medical College (FMHMC), Mangalore have indicated potential use of physiological variability in fundamental research in homoeopathy.