Family - Rubiaceae
scientific name-Ixora grandiflora Ker
Other names-Santan-pula (Tag.)
Jungle flame (Engl.)
Dwarf santan (Engl.)
Ornamental plant is an erect and smooth shrub, growing to a height of 2
to 3 meters. Leaves are stalkless or on very short stalks, oblong, 5 to 9
cm long, heart-shaped or round at the base and blunt at the tip.
Flowers are many, pink or red, and borne in terminal, stalkless or
shortly stalked hairy cymes. Corolla tube is slender, 2.5 cm long; lobes
are spreadiing and oblong, about half the length of the tube. Fruit is
reddish, almost round, about 5 mm diameter.
Other noteworthy ornamental santans: santan puti (Ixora finlaysoniana
Wall), a shrub 2-4 m high, with white fragrant flowers; and Philippine
santan (Ixora philippinensis Merr), a shrub or small tree, with white to
Popular ormaental cultivation.
Parts utilized -
Leaves, roots, stems and flowers
Constituents and properties --
Root contains an aromatic acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids.
Leaves yield flavonols kaemferol and quercetin, proanthocyanidins and
phenolic acids and ferulic acids.
Flowers contain cyanidin and flaconboids, and a coloring material
related to quercitin.
Considered internally sedative, stomachic, tonic, antiseptic, cholagogue
and externally astringent and antiseptic.
Decoction of roots used for nausea, hiccups, and anorexia.
Flowers used for dysentery and leucorrhea.
Poulticed fresh leaves and stems for sprains, eczema, boils and
Diluted tincture of roots for mouthwash and gargles for sore throat.
Flower decoction for hypertension, amenorrhea and irregular
Decoction of leaves for wounds and skin ulcers.
In Bengal, roots are used for dysentery.
Root, ground into pulp, mixed with water and pepper, or as tincture,
used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Powdered roots used for sores and chronic ulcers.
In Indo-China, root decoction used to clarify the urine.
In India and Sri Lanka, the fruits are eaten and the flowers used as
• Wound healing: Alcoholic extract of IC showed increase in granuloma
tissue weight, tensile strength and glycosaminoglycan content. The
prohealing activity was attributed to increased collagen deposition,
alignment and maturation.
• Antimicrobial: Extract studies of EC for antimicrobial activity showed
the ethyl fraction to be more active than the methanol fraction.
• Antioxidant: Phytochemical screening showed the flower extract to
possess flavonoids, steroids, tannin. IC showed strong reducing power
and total antioxidant capacity.
• Pharmacologic evaluation / Electroconvulsive Protective: Evaluation
showed that IC has protective property against electroconvulsions,
antiinflammatory and hemostatic properties.
• Hepatoprotective: Extract of IC flowers showed significant
hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol overdose-induced
hepatotoxicity in rats.
• Chemoprotective: IC flower fraction showed chemoprotective effects on
cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in mice.
• Antinociceptive : Study showed the aqueous leaf extract of IC
possesses considerable antinociceptive activity mediated centrally via a
dopaminergic mechanism. In addition, the antioxidant activity may play a
role in inducing antinociception. The dopaminergic and antioxidative
activities may arise from alkaloid and flavonoid constituents,
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-mitotic: Lupeol, isolated from the leaves of
IC, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced
paw edema in rats. Anti-mitotic activity was also noted in a preliminary
• Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study of the active fraction of Ixora coccinea
flowers showed greater activity on ascitic tumors than solid tumors. It
had no toxicity to normal lymphocytes but was toxic to lymphocytes from
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous leaf extract of Ixora coccinea
showed strong antihistamine and antioxidant activity that can account
for its anti-inflammatory potential. In addition, the inhibitionn of
prostaglandins and bradykinins may play a role in its antiinflammatory
• Anti-Ulcer: Study of the fresh leaf extract of Ixora coccinea was
found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic property and could be a
potential therapeutic agent against ulcer disease.