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Debby reads two chapters today.


The principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy by HERBERT A. ROBERTS, M.D.
Presented by Médi-T


PSORA has numerous sensations of vertigo. These are of many kinds and accompany all kinds of motion, and are often induced or aggravated by emotional disturbances. Hahnemann speaks of the vertigo of psora as being many and peculiar, brought on by walking, motion, looking up and quickly, rising form sitting or lying; bilious vertigo, floating, from digestive disturbances, with spots before the eyes; desire to keep quiet by lying down, which >. In this desire to lie down and > by lying down we have the outstanding characteristic of the whole underlying condition.

There are sharp, severe, paroxysmal headaches which come on in the morning, increase as the sun rises and > when the sun goes down. These are usually frontal, temporal of parietal. The headaches with red face, throbbing, > by rest, quiet and sleep and > by hot applications are psoric.

The bilious nausea and vomiting, coming on at regular intervals, > from rest, quiet and sleep, are psoric.

The characteristic desire to lie down and be quiet is manifest in feverish children, who desire only to be let alone.

Psoric manifestations may be a link in almost all disease conditions, and they are always > by heat.

Psora alone never causes structural changes, and the psoric head is normal in size and contour. The hair and scalp are dry, rarely perspiring; the hair is lusterless and so dry that it cannot be combed without wetting the comb. The hair falls out after an illness. It becomes gray too early, or white in spots; it breaks and the ends split. The skin and scalp appear unclean, and there is much itching dandruff and dry eruptions on the scalp, either papular or eczematous, which itch. These eruptions are < in the open air, < evenings; > by scratching, but burning and smarting follow the scratching. These eruptions do not suppurate but dry down and become dead scales.

There are many eye symptoms, but since there are no structural changes under this uncomplicated stigma, we find no pathological changes. The symptoms all have to do with the functional relationships and are closely related to emotional disturbance. The psoric eye is intolerant of daylight or sunlight, and the symptoms are < in the morning, from the rising of the sun to the zenith, and > by heat. There are spots before the eyes; this is a characteristic manifestation of this miasm, or stigma.

Ptosis of the lids is never psoric, but syphilitic. Red lids are combination of the psoric and syphilitic in the tubercular diathesis.

The ear troubles, like the eye troubles, are functional or nervous. The appearance of the ear is normal; the ear is small or medium in size, and never transparent in appearance. There is no moisture in or about the ear, as with the other miasms. The auditory canal is dry and scaly. We rarely find an abscessed condition in the psoric ear. Since this stigma has such marked nervous reflexes, we expect to find the characteristic oversensitiveness to sounds.

The shape of the psoric face is that of an inverted pyramid, but the face and head do not perspire as does the syphilitic condition. Perspiration is characteristic also of the tubercular diathesis, but this is because of the syphilitic admixture with the psoric. The lips are red, often red to bluish, parched and dry. The usual feverish face in the psoric patient is red and hot and shining. There are the characteristic dry itching pimples and simple acne. The skin is naturally dry, with an unwashed appearance. Rushes of blood to the face or burning of hands or feet are psoric, as are hot flushes at the climacteric.

In the nose also we find the oversensitiveness to odors; unusual odors awaken him from sleep; he cannot sleep where there are strong odors; perfumes make him feel ill and faint. There are painful boils or pimples on the septum, but no malignant manifestations.

Lupus of the nose is a manifestation of the combined stigmata, and closely allied to tuberculosis.

Sordes about the mouth are psoric manifestations. There is swelling and burning about the lips rather than fissures. There is thrush and stomatitis in the mouth. The psoric patient has many taste perversions; there is a bad taste in the mouth; or it may be sweet, bitter or sour; there is a regurgitation of the taste of foods; these patients are very sensitive to taste. While all the miasms, or stigmata, have many perversions of taste, psora is the only one which manifests the symptom of burnt taste.

Psora is always hungry; this miasm has desires and longings for many and various things. They are hungry even with the stomach full; they are never satisfied even while eating. They crave sweets, acids, sour things; in fevers they crave indigestible things. They long for travel, yet they are weak and debilitated; they long for things the system is wanting; they long for certain things, but when the want is gratified they do not want them. During pregnancy they long for peculiar things; yet after gestation they loath the things they have craved. Before bilious attacks they crave consume; rather the craving is a forerunner of the attack, a prodromal symptom.

There is a weak, gone feeling in the stomach in the middle of the forenoon; hunger at night also is a prominent symptom. These patients lack the power of assimilation, which is undoubtedly the cause of the continual craving, and is closely related to the characteristic gnawing in the stomach with sensations of heat and cold. There is a repugnance to boiled foods; they crave fried and highly seasoned foods, meats and greasy foods, but these do not suit. Meats stimulate the psoric patient and arouse the underlying condition to activity. In fevers they have an aversion to sweets and crave acids. The sense of fullness, gas, bloating, etc., are markedly psoric traits, and they are accompanied by heartburn and waterbrash. Most of the aggravations of psora occur after eating.

The cravings and longings are basic phenomena of great therapeutic value. A comparison of the desires of the stigmatic influences is of much help in selecting the remedy: psora desires hot foods; syphilis prefers cold food; sycosis wants the food either hot or cold. Psora desires meats, but the combination of psora and syphilis, in the tubercular diathesis, has an aversion to meats.

With the bloating of the psoric patient, he cannot endure the slightest touch on the abdomen; he fears even the slightest contact.

While pure psora does not produce any structural changes, psora does produce functional changes; these are manifest in the chest condition by the anemic manifestations that have their effect on the duty of furnishing oxygen for the red blood cells. The emotional reaction of psora hampers the natural functions to such an extent that the functions are disturbed and the oxygen circulation feels the lack of the vitalizing influence.

The coughs of psora are dry, teasing, spasmodic and annoying. The expectoration is usually mucous, scanty, tasteless. The salty and sweetish taste of the expectoration are dependable indications of the combined psoric and syphilitic taints.

In the heart there are functional disturbances with violent rushes of blood to the chest, and a sensation of weakness, goneness or fullness about the heart. The sensation as of a band is psoric. This miasm, or stigma, manifests its reflex relationship of gastric or uterine irritations by marked palpitations or sensations as of hammering about the heart. With the heart symptoms there is always anxiety and fear on the part of the patient. The psoric patient always fears that he will die from heart trouble; but the psoric patient is the chronic who lives long and produces income for the physician, for he is the victim of so many unpleasant sensations that he requires much attention, and his habit of fixing his attention upon one or more organs as being the cause of his discomfort demands constant attendance from the physician. He does have many uncomfortable sensations, such as sharp cutting neuralgic pains about the heart. These patients think they are about to die and want to lie down and keep quiet, but there is no danger; it is the sycotic and syphilitic heart patients who die, and then suddenly and without warning. The psoric heart conditions are very much influenced by strong emotions, joy, grief, fear, and so on. These conditions are < eating and drinking; there are palpitations and eructations of large amounts of gas; sometimes the pulsations of the heart will shake the whole body. The psoric patient is always conscious of his heart condition, and it is he who is constantly taking his own pulse.

Psora alone produces more marked anasarca and dropsical conditions than sycosis. The sycotic patient succumbs before the dropsical condition becomes marked; but the union of these two stigmata produces conditions in a marked degree.

The abdomen feels full after eating; there is much distension, < in the morning. The muscles are flabby, and all abdominal pains are > by heat.

The diarrhœas of psora are often induced by overeating. The patient is always hungry and eats beyond his capacity and upsets his digestive powers. This overeating often produces colic and watery diarrhœa, usually in the morning. These diarrhœas fit the symptomatology of such remedies as Aloe, Podophyllum, and Sulphur, among others.

In the tubercular diathesis there is also the morning < of the diarrhœa, and the tubercular condition shows its psoric parentage by the < from cold.

Psora has a spasmodic offensive and painless diarrhœa which usually > the suffering, but it is not a persistent diarrhœa; it comes on form emissions or from preparations for an unusual event; after taking cold; < by cold; > hot drinks or heat in general.

There is a stubborn, marked, persistent constipation, with small, hard, difficult stools and no desire for stool; or there may be alternation of the constipation and diarrhœa. With the constipation there are frequently accompanying troubles in other parts of the organism, or seemingly unrelated symptoms which actually concomitants.

Psora is not only the mother of all diseases, but it is the psoric element which gives the valuable concomitant symptoms and furnishes the modalities and sensations which are a true expression of their sufferings. The psoric patients suffer considerably, probably much more than in the other stigmata, and with less apparent cause.

In children afflicted with this underlying condition we find retention of the urine whenever the body gets chilled, and this condition arises in old people also. An opposite indication of the psoric stigma is the involuntary urination when sneezing, coughing or laughing. There is smarting and burning on urination, but not from pathological causes.

Many symptoms of this stigma are reflected in the sexual sphere, especially in women. In other words, these are functional disturbances closely related to the emotions, and dysmenorrhœa, amenorrhœa, and many other conditions result. Hahnemann tells us that grief or sorrow, such as that caused by an unhappy marriage, will produce more serious and distressing symptoms in the psoric patient than the most unfavorable surroundings or real hardships. It can be seen that there would be a marked reaction on the functions which are so closely related to the nervous system.

The psoric skin is dry, rough, dirty or unhealthy appearing. In fact, the classic psoric remedy is Sulphur, although it is not to be thought that Sulphur will cure all cases nor is it limited in its range of applicability to psoric conditions; but if there is any one remedy which we may limit by saying that it is the picture of a stigma, we may truly say that psora and Sulphur are so like each other, in many instances, that each typifies the other. In appearance, the psoric patients are the "great unwashed;" bathing is unwelcome and < the roughness of the skin and the irritability.

In all psoric conditions, itching is a persistent symptom. There is very little suppuration; there may be a few vesicles or a papular manifestation. Psoric eruptions are not noticeable by their color, but by the roughness of the skin. Unless there is marked inflammation they are the same color as the skin. With the dry skin, there is a decided tendency for fine, thin scales; the eruptions dry down and scale off.

Erysipelatous manifestations are a combination of psora and sycosis.

If there is any syphilitic taint in combination with the psoric base, the patients are very apt to be susceptible to impetigo, for this is the soil in which impetigo flourishes; without these united taints a patient will not become infected with impetigo.

The psoric patient has the symptom of coldness associated with even slight ailments; with headaches there is a deadly coldness that is almost worse than the headache itself, and this is much < by continued effort and > by lying down where it is warm and quiet.

Modern medicine tells us that migraine has as its underlying cause emotional disturbances. In other words, this is a verification of Hahnemann's teaching on the disturbances roused in the psoric patient by grief, sorrow or other harrowing emotions.

It kills the psoric patient to stand still; he must walk instead of standing, even if he is on his feet but a brief time. He may stand if he can lean against anything sufficiently to take the weight off his feet. This is not because of structural changes; it is because of his natural desire to rest, with his characteristic restlessness. Weakness of the ankle joints is a sure indication of the presence of a syphilitic taint in combination with the psoric stigma.


CRITICISM of Hahnemann's psora theory has raged for a century. It is not feasible to follow minutely Hahnemann's line of reasoning that led to his declaration of the psora theory, but we have his own statement that it took years to classify what he came to term the psoric miasm. Enough has been written to show that his reasoning in this respect was sound, and as far as it went, clear. It is not strange that in the light of modern knowledge new arguments have arisen to assail this theory. Let us examine it in the light of present-day knowledge.

We have considered the general symptomatology forming the psoric group. Now let us turn to Bœnninghausen's list of antipsoric remedies, and try to prove our problem along the same lines we should employ were we to prove a problem in arithmetic. This list, comprising fifty remedies, was published in Hahnemann's time, and has been used with remarkable success in the so-called psoric conditions from that time forward:

Ammonium carb
Ammonium mur.
Arsenicum alb.
Baryta carb.
Bor. ac.
Calcarea carb
Carbo animalis
Carbo veg.
Colocynth Conium
Hepar sulph.
Kali carb.
Magnesium carb.
Magnesium mur.
Muriatic acid
Natrum carb.
Natrum mur.
Kali nit.
Nitric acid
Phosphoric acid
Sulphuric acid

Sixteen of the remedies listed belong definitely to the vegetable group, one definitely to the animal group; of the remaining thirty-three remedies, comprising the chemical elements or inorganic substances, or combined from these elements or substances (or reduced to almost elemental consideration, as the Carbo's) we find only three (Baryta, Platinum and Aurum) that appear in the range of chemical elements higher by atomic weight than those essential to the construction of the human body. The three remedies having their source in the higher-than-body construction elements may be considered as falling into the antisyphilitic class, and we may reasonably question their adaptability to the antipsoric condition when unmixed with a venereal taint.

Let us set aside for the time these three which seem to us questionably allocated to this group, and proceed without hypothesis.

Some thirty elements, more or less, have been ascertained by different investigators as appearing in the human body. It has been definitely established that many of these are absolutely essential to physical construction. Iodine, number 53 of the elements, is regarded as the highest in atomic weight; and as we have pointed out, only the three that we have questioned appear in the antipsoric list beyond iodine.

The following list of elements appearing in the human body has been compiled from several sources. It is notable that not all these elements have been assigned constructive roles, in the eyes of investigators; or rather, their presence in the body structure has not been determined. Nevertheless, all these come within the first fifty-three elements, as determined by atomic weight.

1. Hydrogen.
3. Lithium.
6. Carbon.
7. Nitrogen.
8. Oxygen.
9. Fluorine.
11. Sodium.
12. Magnesium.
13. Aluminium. 14. Silicon.
15. Phosphorus.
16. Sulphur.
17. Chlorine.
19. Potassium.
20. Calcium.
22. Titanium.
25. Manganese.
26. Iron.
27. Cobalt.
28. Nickel.
29. Copper.
30. Zinc.
32. Germanium.
33. Arsenic.
35. Bromine.
50. Tin.
53. Iodine.

Morse tells us (Applied Biochemistry):

It is seen that no inert element, like argon [Argon accompanies air into the lungs as nitrogen does, but in both cases they play no part in the economy of the body.], occurs in the body; that radioactive elements and those that are undergoing decomposition are lacking; and that with regard to atomic weight, iodine is the farthest up the scale. Heavy elements, such as lead, and the noble metals, are not found. Two explanations may be offered:

(1) The distribution of the elements in the human organism is an historical matter, representing the period in evolution when only those elements that are of lighter weight than iodine were evolved. This is not probable.

(2) The lighter kinds occurring in living things because these elements were relegated to the surface of the earth and were available for the use of the organism as it has undergone evolution. The geologist believes that the heavier elements lie toward the center of the earth, since the total weight of the earth demands heavier substances near the center of the mass.

So in reality we might add to our list argon (18) and nitrogen (7) as appearing with some regularity in the body. With our knowledge of the power of the infinitesimals beyond the range of laboratory analysis we dare not say that any element, however small its portion or vague its relationship, "plays no part."

Again, with our knowledge of the disturbing powers of the radio-active elements, we can see definitely why they were not included in construction, for they are essentially destructive. These correspond to the action of the syphilitic taint, and should be classed as anti-syphilitic in action.

However, we are discussing primarily those elements which, in simple form or combined, are essentially constructive, to demonstrate the significance of our hypothesis that Psora, and Deficiency in properly balanced essentials, are one and the same; or if they are not identical problems, we must admit that here lies a significant key to the problem of psora, and one worthy of deeper study.

Without question there is some essential failure of the system to assimilate the necessary constructive materials that provides the background of the so-called psoric taint; yet we find that emotional or other stress develops the psoric symptomatology even in constitutions that have been sound and healthy. Here we find that our theory of psora as a deficiency of the proper elements is verified. For instance, those chest conditions with many functional symptoms: we are often able to trace these to improper breathing habits, and this again to emotional strain that has broken the habit of rhythm; or perhaps the breathing habit has been normal until the necessity of remaining long hours in close, unaired rooms has forced the system to unnatural and insufficient intake of oxygen.

The greatest asset of the body is that of adaptability, but this in itself, under unnatural or forced conditions, while permitting life to continue under emergent or hampered conditions, breeds a train of symptoms that Hahnemann described as psoric.

The body elements best known to the student of biochemistry are: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic and Iodine. Chemists have been able to estimate the percentage of these elements present in the organism, even such small amounts as those of arsenic, with its sixth-decimal proportions in thyroid and brain, and 0.000,001,9 per cent. in the liver. It is comparatively easy to define the constructive purposes of many of these elements, such as calcium; yet there is some purpose aside from that of mere bricks-and-mortar for even the most obvious. Magnesium is found throughout the body, in the lungs, glands, brain, muscles and muscular organs such as the heart. This has been determined with a fair amount of measurable accuracy; yet how do we account for the fact that a magnesium-free diet sends animals into convulsions? Or that tin, found in traces in the tongue and brain, is related definitely to the sense of taste? When cobalt and nickel, discovered in the pancreas, are lacking, just what influence does this have in the development of diabetes?

Manganese is an accompaniment of iron in practically all human tissue. Scientists have discovered that manganese starvation in animals will produce sterility in the male and loss of mother-love in the female; this loss of maternal instinct incites them to refuse attention to their young, who die in a few hours. McCollum tells us: "When to the carefully prepared manganese-free diet is added as little as five-thousandths of I per cent. of manganese, all the abnormalities described are corrected." Yet Reiman and Minot tell us: "Prolonged feeding of moderate amounts of its ores to dogs failed to produce significant changes in the manganese content of the blood and tissues or to cause any pathological symptoms."

It is comparatively easy to determine the broader outlines of the constructive duties of these elements and inorganic substances, but it is the subtle and potential influences (as illustrated by the observations on manganese) that are most pertinent to our thesis. In other words, it is not the overfeeding or gross starvation of any element that provides us with the so-called antipsoric remedies. Since the so-called psoric conditions are largely functional and react preeminently upon the nervous and emotional plane, may we not regard these conditions as a lack of balance in the ability to assimilate, as well as a possible starvation of essentials?

In a comparison of the constructive role of these substances (as determined by laboratory technique) with their more subtle manifestations (demonstrated through provings of the homœopathic potentiations), let us look again at manganese:

Reiman and Minot (J. Biological Chemistry) "found it to be present in practically all human tissue, the liver carrying more than any other;" J. H. Clarke (Dictionary of the Materia Medica) cites its ability to produce inflammation and fatty degeneration of the liver. We have seen its association with iron in the blood, and homœopathically, it has its place in anemic conditions when indicated. We have noted the laboratory observation of the loss of maternal instinct. Clarke gives as the first mental symptom: "Peevishness and taciturnity, with concentration in self." Sterility has not been a proven symptom, yet Clarke gives: "Sensation of weakness in (male) genital organs."

Speaking of the necessity for carbohydrates in the diet, McCollum (Food, Nutrition and Health) says:

During digestion and absorption through the intestinal walls all of these (forms of carbohydrates) are converted into glucose. Glucose is the one sugar which always occurs in the blood. Although it is present in blood only to the extent of one part per thousand of blood, this sugar is the principal fuel which is burned by the muscles for providing energy for keeping the body warm and for muscular work.

Carbohydrates are the usual form in which carbon, the element, is found in the system and in which it is ingested. This is the physiological sphere; now let us turn to the role the carbons occupy in the list of antipsoric remedies. In Bœnninghausen's list we find Ammonium carb., Baryta carb., Calcarea carb., Carbo animalis, Carbo veg., Graphites, Kali carb., Magnesium carb., Natrum carb., Sepia; all these have the characteristic carbon influence, even though associated with another element. It may seem strange to the casual student of materia medica to include Sepia in this list, but to the homœopathician Sepia is the animal carbon.

In spite of our belief that Barium belongs preeminently to the antisyphilitic group, Baryta carb. bears the family relationship of the carbons, which admits it to the antipsoric, or deficiency, group as well. Carbo an. and Carbo veg. manifest most markedly the characteristic homœopathic indications for their use: burned out defines the condition in one word. This burned out energy and its end-results of lack of body heat and muscular strength extends even into the mental sphere; and whether it comes from excesses, loss of animal fluids, from emotional, mental or physical stress, it is the red thread that runs all through the proven symptoms of the carbon combinations. This symptomatic thread runs all through the various spheres of action of each individual remedy of the carbon family, mental, moral, and all the varying physical fields in which it is applicable-and inasmuch as it is found it its physiological form throughout the system, so we find its symptomatology running through every part.

Calcium is an essential of bony structure and is a necessary, small but constant, essential of the blood. The homœopathic materia media indicates the Calcarea group in "scrofulous" conditions; rickety children; large heads with open fontanelles; and a host of symptoms we have already described in those conditions traceable to psora. McCollum tells us that calcium in the food is not enough: "Human infants often develop rickets when receiving a sufficiency of calcium and phosphorus provided they are deprived of sunlight and vitamin D."

This last comment, provided they are deprived of sunlight... leads us to meditate upon that comment of Hahnemann in relation to psora, to the effect that unnatural or unhappy surroundings are extremely dangerous to the vital energy.

It is not necessary to compare the symptomatology of many of our remedies with the body elements to bear out our contention that the problems of psora and deficiency are closely related. Any thoughtful student may verify further comparisons in the homœopathic materia medica.

In these days one rarely has the opportunity to see a patient released from emotional and economic stress into simple and natural surroundings, with much outdoor life and a simple, natural food supply free from adulterations and replete with the stored elements direct from Nature's lavish supply. However, if such a case is observed, one learns many things about the resilience of the human economy under the proper conditions. It leads one to a different outlook upon psora and its relation to the undue stress of modern life and economic conditions. We have stated repeatedly that emotional strain was an important factor in developing psoric conditions: the inability to relax for the natural and important functions demanded by Nature. Hustle and bustle take away our rhythmic, full, deep breathing; the hurry for trains and time clocks interferes too often with the excretory functions; the demands of society lead us to suppress natural perspiration; anxiety over almost every item of our lives gets in its dangerous work and often deprives us of necessary rest-certainly of chance moments of relaxation.

All these circumstances pressing upon a delicate adjustment of spirit, mind and body' (especially if this be predisposed by inheritance to maladjustment) cannot but make confusion worse confounded. And at this point, if we pass on to our unborn children our inhibitions and suppressions of the spirit, mind and flesh, what can we except but to build for them a future lacking the ability to receive from natural sources those elements-not always measurable nor as yet defined-that are essential to health? And when we ponder that wrong living conditions, appalling plagues and seasons of famine have been cyclic since History began, we cannot wonder at an inherited tendency to disease that Hahnemann called psoric.

Whether this tendency to the psoric manifestations develops because of inability to assimilate or inability to relax to the point of assimilation, the end-results are the same, and will continue to be until corrected through more healthy and natural ways of living plus the power of the potentized remedy to release suppressions and tune the maladjustments to order.


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Replies to This Discussion

This is a wonderful teaching

Wow! I really appreciate your comments, Yvonne. It's what keeps me going forward. 

A big thank you, Debby. It`s very interesting discussion and useful presentation, The miasmatic approach has always been very important in managing cases of chronic dis-eases especially now days in our society. There is always a lot to learn. It`s a wonderful way of educating and sharing experience. Thanks once more.


Hello Dear Seniya - You know how dry it can be to read some writings on your own. You can easily fall asleep, lose your train of thought, or start daydreaming. Having books on tape is not not for the elderly. Reading aloud helps us integrate the concepts and we can learn something new on each reading and listening. Thank you for comments and encouragement. love, Debby


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