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SALMONELLA NEWS UPATE

Incidence of Salmonella in Tomatoes
February 2014 Florida, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

 

Microwave Safe Eating. Frozen meals may harbor salmonella and for best practices, cook thoroughly, giving proper time before serving. 

  • Poisoning of 44 people from frozen chicken-and-rice meals in 18 states in the US  
  • Let food STAND after the prerequisite cooking time in the microwave. The food is still cooking even though out of appliance. 
  • All food must thaw and cook to proper temperature
  • To be really safe, cook using traditional oven and trash the microwave. 

 

Incidence and Role of Salmonella in Seafood Safety

 

Food processors beware: Salmonella biofilms incredibly resistant to powerful disinfectants

Once Salmonella bacteria get into a food processing facility and have an opportunity to form a biofilm on surfaces, it is likely to be extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible, to kill it, according to research published ahead of print in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

  • Fact: We cannot depend upon the COLOR of meat or poultry to determine safety. Only a thermometer can measure whether food is fully cooked. Poultry should be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees, ground beef to 160 degrees. Pork, seafood and medium-well cooked beef should have a temperature of 145 degrees.

 

13 State Salmonella Outbreak Possibly Linked to Tyson Chicken

 

The CDC reports as of January 13, 2014, a total of 9 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Heidelberg have been reported from Tennessee.

Two (22%) of 9 ill persons have been hospitalized, and no deaths have been reported.

  • Fact: Always use separate cooking surfaces for raw foods, such as vegetable, fruits and meats. Cross contamination may occur when tainted foods touch other uncooked foods like raw fruits, salads and veggies or other uncooked meats.

 

Gross Chicken News: Tyson Issues Salmonella Recall, Roach-Infested Foster Farms Reopens

January 14, 2014 (Investigation Announcement) Outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to Tyson Brand Mechanically Separated Chicken at a Correctional Facility. CDC is collaborating with public health officials in Tennessee and the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) to investigate an outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg infections at a Tennessee correctional facility. Results from Tennessee’s investigation indicate that mechanically separated chicken produced by Tyson Foods, Inc. is the likely source of the outbreak at the Tennessee correctional facility.

  • Fact: Putting foods under refrigeration or into the freezer will slow bacterial growth, but some bacteria can still live in subzero temperatures.

 

Lab Paddle Blender used to ensure Poultry is Safe for Consumption | Seward’s Stomacher® 400 Circulator has been used in a recent evaluation of international sampling methods for the microbiological analysis of broiler carcasses after immersion chilling. As a widespread pathogen, Salmonella can cause severe illness in humans. Global poultry industries have therefore deployed and maintained various food safety programmes to ensure that poultry is safe for consumption.

Caerwent waste site leakage contained 'salmonella and E. coli' court hears

 

A WASTE recycling site that treated thousands of tons of household rubbish leaked a run-off that contained salmonella and E. coli, a court heard. The site run by Wormtech Ltd was licenced to compost up to 75,000 tons of food and garden waste from homes in Gwent, Cardiff Crown Court was told. But Environment Agency (EA) bosses discovered the Caerwent site had polluted a watercourse in 2010. The company pleaded guilty to an offense in relation to the pollution incident, but the EA suspended its license in July 2012 after becoming aware of the leak from a composting building, a jury heard.

  • Fact: Bacterial growth may occur on organic or inorganic fresh, local or out of state vegetables, salad greens, fruits, meats or poultry. More than half of produce-related norovirus infections were caused by cooks, waiters and others who were sick then they prepared or served the food.

 


January 12, 2014 Salmonella News Tyson chicken recall: Institutional customers warned of salmonella contamination

  • Recall 33,840 pounds of mechanically separated chicken | Tyson Foods Inc. is recalling more than 30,000 pounds of chicken products, claiming they might be contaminated with a Salmonella Heidelberg strain, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced Friday.

    • Fact: Always cover and put away opened foods into a cooler or fridge if it won't be eaten within a couple of hours to reduce the chance of bacteria growth.

  • Tyson Foods Inc. is recalling more than 30,000 pounds of chicken products, claiming they might be contaminated with a Salmonella Heidelberg strain, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced Friday.

 

Salmonella Transferred to Humans Through Turtles

 

Learning about Persister Cells after the use of antibiotics | In 2010, Sophie Helaine and her colleagues demonstrated that when mice are infected with Salmonella, a certain percentage of bacterial cells become non-dividing persisters. To track these cells, she used a technique she called fluorescent dilution. She engineered Salmonella cells to express a fluorescent protein upon exposure to a given chemical. Once the chemical is removed, as the cells divide, each daughter cell gets only half the amount of fluorescent protein, so the total fluorescence of the population keeps going down.

 

Understanding The Ways Cells May Respond
Getting eaten by vacuoles pushes Salmonella cells to enter one of a number of quiescent states. Some continue replicating; some die; some stay dormant; but some remain metabolically active and can start to grow again once released. The authors speculate that this heterogeneity may help the bugs survive antibiotic exposures as well as the immune system's attempt to clear the infection.

 

 

 

January 10, 2013 | Dr Park Jong-Oh and Chonnam National University team show the potential benefits of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria used in research using nanotechnology. The South Korea scientists confirmed the propensity of bacteriobots to migrate toward tumors and their tumor targeting ability with animal testing. They already have the patent for this nanorobot.

 

New Form Of Chemotherapy Delivered By Nano-Robots

Genetically-modified non-toxic bacteria move inside tissues or blood with flagella, and find tumors by pushing microstructures and targeting certain drugs secreted by cancer cells. Upon the arrival of bacteriobots in the tumor region, anticancer drugs that come from microstructures are spread onto the surface of tumors at a speed of 5µm/s on average.

  • Consider the possibilities for unethical use of Genetically Modified bacteria as a terrorist agent to individuals or populations. GLOBAL INCIDENT MAP
  • Consider the outcome in nature when a developed strain of Samonella bacteria gets out lose in the environment. Do we know the repercussions to all plant and animal life to something they have never been in contact with before? We hope for the best, but what are the risks short and longterm?

 

December 3, 2013 | Eggs and Salmonella  - Rules, Regulations, Proper Storage and Handling

The U.S. is one of the only countries on Earth that keeps chicken eggs in cold storage as a way to stave off disease from highly contaminated eggs. The production of eggs in crowded and unsafe condition leads to higher rates of salmonella, even in inoculated or immunized chickens against the disease. In Europe, eggs are grown, delivered and stored at room temperature, instead of in refrigerated units, because this encourages better and more humane treatment and handling of chickens and eggs. In America, the eggs must be washed and misted with chlorine to tamp down bacteria growth. This treatment is unnecessary in other countries. 

 

October 8, 2013 | Chickens Salmonella

Foster Farms raw chicken products made at three California sites may have sickened nearly 300 people in 18 states, according to a public health alert issued Monday by U.S. Department of Agriculture officials. 

At least 278 illnesses caused by salmonella Heidelberg linked to the chicken brand have been reported, mostly in California, according to the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service. The products were distributed mainly to outlets in California, Oregon and Washington state. 

 

August 2013 | Spices and Salmonella | 

The United States Food and Drug Administration will soon release a comprehensive analysis that pinpoints imported spices, found in just about every kitchen in the Western world, as a surprisingly potent source of salmonella poisoning.

In a study of more than 20,000 food shipments, the food agency found that nearly 7 percent of spice lots were contaminated with salmonella, twice the average of all other imported foods. Some 15 percent of coriander and 12 percent of oregano and basil shipments were contaminated, with high contamination levels also found in sesame seeds, curry powder and cumin. Four percent of black pepper shipments were contaminated.

Each year, 1.2 million people in the United States become sick from salmonella, one of the most common causes of food-borne illness. More than 23,000 are hospitalized and 450 die. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps that begin 12 to 36 hours after infection and can last three to five days. Death can result when infection spreads from the intestines to the bloodstream and affects vital organs. Infants and older people are most at risk.

Mexico and India had the highest share of contaminated spices. About 14 percent of the samples from Mexico contained salmonella, the study found, a result Mexican officials disputed.

 

Peanut Butter and Salmonella

The year is 2012 and the peanut butter is not safe to eat. 

Los Angeles Times | The recall started with Trader Joe's, a family store that you would never suspect would sell tainted food. They have a reputation for quality at a reasonable price. 

Sunland Inc. expanded its nut butter recall to include all raw and roasted shelled and in-shell peanuts processed in its Peanut Processing Plant because the products have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella.products made in its Portales, N.M., facility between March 1, 2010 and Sept. 24, 2012 — bringing the total number of products potentially implicated in a recent Salmonella outbreak to 240.  

 

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Salmonella and Chickens

Isn't it interesting that at a time when there is a rise in raising your own chickens, growing your own gardens, and home-schooling simultaneously we see a rise in these contagious deadly diseases in the industrial farming system? 

 

Note that this video explains the problem originates with handling baby chicks.

 

LIMAU ORANGE | Poultry employees at enhanced chance of carrying antibiotic-resistant E. Coli shown in John Hopkins Study

  • U.S. Poultry farmers and employees have a 32% higher risk of carrying an E-coli gentamicin antibiotic resistant strain risk than non-workers.

  • These workers were found to have resistance for the antimicrobials ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriazone, gentamicin and tetracycline
  • Feeding antimicrobial meals has been standard in the poultry industry for fifty years.

  • The US feeds fifty percent of antimicrobial prescription drugs to  about 9 billion farm animals annually.

  • Report from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg college of general public wellbeing. December, 2007, edition of Environmental wellbeing Perspectives. Jay P. Graham, Lelia G. Lackey, Amira Roess and Rocio Vailes

  • PDF Connecticut Epidemiologist Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Involving Employees of a Company — Connecticut, 2009

KAALTV | Salmonella Cases on the Rise in Minnesota

(ABC 6 NEWS) – A Salmonella outbreak has sickened dozens of people and hospitalized at least nine more in several states, including Minnesota.

 

We have been explaining on the recent radio shows about E-coli and contagious disease that washing hands is the best way to stop the spread of illness. Wash for two solid minutes and soap up hands. We learned this from the swine flu pandemic scare.

 

Learn Proper Hand Washing Technique

 

What is the proper technique for washing your hands?

  • Wash hands with detergent
  • Unfortunately, government tells us to use antibacterial soaps which create more resistant strains
  • Wash hands for 20 seconds or as indicated sing song twice
  • Clean under fingernails; use nail brush
  • Dry on paper towels or in air

I'm more conscientious about washing hands when I come indoors from handling shopping carts, opening doors and shaking hands. CDC tells us also to wash after:

  • combing hair
  • touching raw meat, poultry,fish
  • using the toilet
  • touching animals
  • working in the garden
  • changing diapers
  • sneezing or blowing your nose

 

Most importantly, always wash hands thoroughly after handling pets, going to the bathroom and before preparing any meals or snacks. 

 

Today, we call every increase in illness an epidemic. In 1990 a report was published in PubMed: International increase in Salmonella enteritidis: a new pandemic?

  • Abstract Over the past 5 years Salmonella enteritidis infections in humans have increased on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. The WHO salmonella surveillance data for 1979-87 were reviewed and show that S. enteritidis appears to be increasing on at least the continents of North America, South America, and Europe, and may include Africa. S. enteritidis isolates increased in 24 (69%) of 35 countries between 1979 and 1987. In 1979, only 2 (10%) of 21 countries with reported data reported S. enteritidis as their most common salmonella serotype; in 1987, 9 (43%) of 21 countries reported S. enteritidis as their most common serotype; 8 (89%) of 9 were European countries. Although the reason for the global increase is not yet clear, investigations in individual countries suggest it is related to consumption of eggs and poultry which harbour the organism. PMID: 2200698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2271793
     
  • Read PDF from National Institute of Health

 

  • Poor treatment of animals increases risk of salmonella.  August 28, 2010 Battery cages are not only cruel to animals, they also increase the risk of Salmonellacontamination. This infographic explains why intensive battery cage confinement increases Salmonella risk factors. PDF LINK

 

  • More than one million people have been infected with Salmonella in the past fifteen years.
  • And the CDC estimates that for every lab-confirmed case of the infection, there are 29 others that go unreported.

According to the report from the CDC, the other seven food borne illnesses it gathers data for, including E.Coli has decreased during the past 15 years, while Salmonella increased.

 

Salmonella also affects swine herds. What do you think the connection between birds, swine and influenza? And, now we also see links to salmonella and poultry and pigs. What homeopathic remedies and remedy pictures come to mind?

 

I wrote considerably about the salmonella outbreak of 2010 in an older blog.

 

Homeopathy

Arsenicum album : Take for severe, burning abdominal pain with prolonged diarrhea, ice cold body and extremities, extreme thirst and outbreaks of sweating.

Veratrum album : Take for crampy abdominal pains with nausea and vomiting or diarrhea

 

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April 29, 2012 | Banned Antibiotics Found in Poultry
Researchers find evidence of illegal use of antibiotics in poultry products.
By Jef Akst | April 6, 2012

Fluoroquinolones—a class of broad spectrum antibiotics that was banned from use in US poultry production by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2005—may still be in use illegally, according to a study published March 21 in Environmental Science & Technology. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Arizona State University found residues of the drugs in 8 of 12 samples of feather meal, a common byproduct of the poultry processing industry. The findings suggest that the animals were given fluoroquinolones prior to their slaughter and sale.
“The discovery of certain antibiotics in feather meal strongly suggests the continued use of these drugs, despite the ban put in place in 2005 by the FDA,” lead author David Love, a microbiologist with Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, said in a press release. “The public health community has long been frustrated with the unwillingness of FDA to effectively address what antibiotics are fed to food animals.”
Antibiotic use in farmed animals is a concern because it may be fueling drug resistance to human infectious diseases. “Particularly worrisome is the continued use in animals of antibiotics that are close structural relatives of those that are used in human medicine,” wrote Bonnie M. Marshall and Stuart B. Levy of Tufts University in this month’s Critic At Large column. “It is feared that, in time, these drugs will lose potency as bacteria express ‘cross-resistance’ to the related drugs.”
Indeed, the current findings that fluoroquinolones may still be in use could explain the trends of fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter bacteria. “In recent years, we’ve seen the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance slow, but not drop,” study co-author Keeve Nachman, also at the Center for a Livable Future, said in the press release. “With such a ban, you would expect a decline in resistance to these drugs” that is much greater, he said.



When in doubt, throw it out.

Other vectors where salmonella can spread to populations include fruit farms.

The CDC reports a multi-state outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium tied to Cantaloupes.

We have often been told to wash the outside of melons thoroughly before cutting due to the potential spread of this disease. Summer heat combined with poor sanitation and irrigation routines may jump start the propagation throughout entire fields and harvests that go to market. 

 

  • August 30, 2012
  • A total of 204 persons infected reported from 22 states.
  • Chamberlain Farms Produce, Inc. of Owensville, Indiana is a source of this outbreak.

 

Another tainted fruit, the mango from 

  • August 30, 2012
  • A total of 105 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Braenderup have been reported to PulseNet from 16 states since July 1, 2012.
    • On August 24, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) issued a health hazard alert.
    • On August 29, Splendid Products of Burlingame, California issued a voluntary recall of certain lots of Daniella brand mangoes. 

 

Types of items where salmonella has been detected at unsafe levels:

African Dwarf Frogs,  Alfalfa and Spicy Sprouts,  Alfalfa Sprouts, Banquet Pot Pies,  Cantaloupe,  Cheesy Chicken Rice Frozen Entrée,  Chicks and Ducklings,  Clinical and Teaching Microbiology Laboratories,  Dry Dog Food,  Fresh Imported Papayas,  Frozen Mamey Fruit Pulp,  Frozen Rodents,  Ground Beef,  Ground Beef,  Ground Turkey,  Kosher Broiled Chicken Livers,  Live Poultry,  Malt-O-Meal Rice/Wheat Cereals, Mangoes,  Peanut Butter, Pistachios,  Raw Scraped Ground Tuna Product,  Red and Black Pepper/Italian-Style Meats,  Restaurant Chain A,  Shell Eggs,  Small Turtles,  Tomatoes - Salmonella Typhimurium,  Turkey Burgers,  Turkish Pine Nuts,  Veggie Booty,  Water Frogs

 

Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The genus Salmonella contains over 2,000 sero-species and is one of the most important pathogens in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella are Gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, made up of nonspore-forming rods, usually motile by flagella. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the among the most common Salmonella serovars causing Salmonellosis infections in the US. In humans, Salmonellosis causes diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection and may last for up to 7 days. Some cases result in hospitalization. Some in death. Salmonella is readily transmitted through the faeces of people or animals.

 

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Tags: chickens, chicks, eggs, pigs, poultry, salmonella, swine

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Nice....

PS:

Worldwide over 50 billion chickens are now being slaughtered every year. 8.39 Billion Chickens are slaughtered every day. In other birds, 3 million chickens are killed in the U.S. for food--that's 269 deaths per second!
 

As a result of genetic manipulation for overgrown muscle tissue (meat) of the breast and thighs, these birds suffer miserably from painful lameness causing them to crouch and hobble in pain, from gastrointestinal and blood diseases, and chronic respiratory infections. The parents of these birds are raised in darkness and kept on semi-starvation diets to reduce the mating infirmities caused by forcing chickens bred for meat to grow too large too fast.

During their 45 days of life, “broiler” chickens live in semi-darkness on manure-soaked wood shavings, unchanged through several flocks of 30,000 or more birds in a single shed. Excretory ammonia fumes often become so strong that the birds develop a blinding eye disease called ammonia burn. So painful is this disease that afflicted birds rub their hurting eyes with their wings and let out cries of pain.
 

“Broiler” chickens are crowded by the thousands into filthy, closed sheds contaminated with poisonous Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria. In addition to sickening the birds, these bacteria often remain in the cooked flesh, a common cause of food poisoning.

The modern hen used for egg production is far removed from the active Southeast Asian jungle fowl from whom she’s derived and from the active farmyard birds of the more recent past. She is a painfully debeaked, tortured bird who is jammed in a wire cage for a year or two, squeezed together with 8 or 9 other tormented hens in sheds holding 50,000 to 125,000 terrified, bewildered birds.

A small bird, forced to churn out huge numbers of large eggs, this hen is prone to a cruel condition known as Uterine Prolapse. When a small chicken pushes and strains day after day to expel large eggs, her uterus pushes out through the vent area leading to painful infection and a slow, agonizing death. The egg industry deprives hens of all food or severely restricts their rations from one to three weeks straight to manipulate egg laying and market prices, and to “save feed costs.” This practice is called Forced Molting.

Cooped for life without exercise while constantly drained of calcium to produce egg shells, laying hens develop osteoporosis, a mineral depletion and breaking of the bones from which many hens die miserably in their cages, often with their heads trapped between the bars. This disease of imprisonment is called Caged Layer Fatigue. Approximately 300 million hens are caged for egg production in the U.S. each year, 26 million in Canada, and 40 million in the U.K. Worldwide, about 5600 million hens are living in cages.


What happens to the 250 million male chicks born to hens in the U.S. egg industry each year?

Along with defective and slow-hatching female chicks, they are trashed as soon as they hatch. Upon breaking out of their shells, instead of being sheltered by a mother’s wings, the newborns are ground up alive, electrocuted, or thrown into trashcans where they slowly suffocate on top of one another, peeping to death while a human foot stomps them down to make more room for more chicks. Because the male chicken of the egg industry cannot lay eggs, and has not been genetically manipulated for profitable meat production, he is of no use to the egg industry. Destruction of unwanted male chicks is a worldwide practice.

At 6 - 12 weeks old, baby “broiler” and “roaster” chickens are cornered and grabbed by catching crews and carried upside down by their legs – struggling, flapping, and crying – to the transport truck. Jammed inside coops they may travel up to 12 hours to the slaughterhouse through heat, wind, rain, sleet, and snow without food or water.

Spent laying hens are simply flung from the battery cages to the transport crates by their wings, feet, legs, head, or whatever is grabbed. They are electrocuted, suffocated, buried alive, gassed, or chopped to pieces, alive, by woodchipper blades. Half-naked from feather loss caused by crowded caging, and terrorized by a lifetime of abuse, hens in transport experience such intense fear that many are paralyzed by the time they reach their final destination – the rendering company, slaughterhouse, landfill, grinder. Starved for 4 days before catching, they are a mass of broken bones, oozing abscesses, bruises, and internal hemorrhage. They are covered with the slime of broken eggs and pieces of shells. When not buried alive, these hens are shredded into human food, pet food, mink feed and poultry feed.

At the slaughterhouse, after being held in the trucks for 1 to 12 hours, chickens raised for meat are torn from the cages and hung upside down on a movable rack. As they move towards the killing knife, they are dragged through an electric current that paralyzes them but does not render them unconscious or pain-free. Millions of birds are alive, conscious and breathing not only as their throats are cut but afterwards, when their bodies are plunged into scalding water to remove their feathers. In the scalder “the chickens scream, kick, and their eyeballs pop out of their heads.” The industry calls these birds “redskins” – birds who were scalded while they were still alive.

Is it worth to become clear vegetarian, after all?

You have not painted a pretty picture, Vik. I believe home-grown eggs from chickens who are family pets may have a better life.

The minority of the poultry may have better life.

Better avoid raw egg :)

I have no problem with raw egg if you wash eggshell and get wholesome organic eggs. Even most eggs are fine. Mike Adams highly recommends raw egg in drinks. Do you remember the time when raw eggs were part of hangover folk remedy?

Bacterial contamination of food

The contamination of fresh food with bacteria that are harmful to humans appears to be a relatively common occurrence, especially in countries with warm climates, but it can be prevented by good practice. TakeSalmonella enterica for example. It has been shown that this pathogen can enter plants like lettuce and alfalfa through the roots when the plants are irrigated with contaminated water. Another study has shown that E. coliin dirty water can enter spinach through the leaves, either during growth or after harvesting.

What happens when the bacteria get inside the plants is not clear. Some research groups have undertaken genetic studies to illustrate which genes are involved, with stress response one of the key processes that are activated. Other responses depend to some extent on the mechanism by which the pathogen enters the plant.

Now, scientists in the US have used modern proteomics techniques to see which proteins are affected directly when S. enterica Infantis is allowed to infect the green salad bowl lettuce Lactuca sativa. Xu Li and colleagues from various departments at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln looked at the changes occurring in the bacterium as well as the lettuce.

Infected lettuce plants

Young lettuces were inoculated with a suspension of the bacterium through the leaves and control lettuces were inoculated with sterile water. After 24 hours of further growth, the leaves were harvested and processed to collect separately the proteins belonging to the plant and the pathogen. The bacterium was also grown in a broth from which the proteins were extracted.

Each extract was subjected to proteomics analysis by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The double separation, on strong cation-exchange resin then monolithic C18material, produces more refined fractions so that a greater number of peptides can be detected in the mass spectrometer.

The tandem mass spectra were searched against standard reference databases to identify the proteins present. Their relative quantities were also determined using spectral counting which compares the total number of spectra identified for particular proteins. Any proteins that were more abundant by a factor of two or more when two sets were compared were regarded to be significantly differentially expressed and examined further.

Alternative carbon source for Salmonella

When the protein abundances of S. enterica Infantis from the plant and the broth were compared, a total of 541 were detected and 50 of those were differentially expressed, 34 with increased abundance and 16 with reduced abundance. They were associated with various pathways, such as metabolism, stress response, protein synthesis, and transport.

One particular protein, which was identified as an ascorbate-specific IIB component, was 37-fold more abundant in the bacteria that had been inoculated into the lettuce. Ascorbate, also known as vitamin C, is a major component of lettuce leaves and this finding is consistent with reports thatSalmonella can use it as an alternative carbon source when its usual sources are not available.

A number of bacterial enzymes involved in glycolysis were down-regulated after the bacterium was added to the lettuce, compared with their levels in the broth. The research team suggested that the sugars fructose and sucrose, which are present in abundance in lettuce leaves, are somehow not accessible to the bacterium. On the other hand, it may mean that Salmonella targets other substrates.

Several proteins involved in oxidative stress were up-regulated but about 50% of the differentially expressed stress-related proteins were down-regulated. Another protein, flagellin, was also reduced in abundance, which the researchers associated with a better ability of the bacterium to move inside the leaves.

Within the lettuce proteins, 20 out of 289 were differentially expressed. Many of these were defence proteins that were increased in abundance in response to attack. A set of resistance proteins was also found in the infected leaves that were absent from the control plants, indicating that they were induced in response to Salmonella. One of these was an ethylene receptor, ethylene being a major plant hormone and likely to be involved in regulation of the pathogen.

The findings give an indication of how the Salmonella bacterium adjusts to life inside lettuce plants, modifying its metabolism and changing the expression of its proteins so that it can survive. They also help to explain how the lettuce copes with being invaded and which proteins are called up to defend against the pathogen.

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