“ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS IN VITRO”
Dr. K . M . NISANTH NAMBISON M.D(Gold Med)
• Asst. Prof, Govt. Auto. Homoeopathic Medical College Bhopal
• Professor, Faculty of Homeopathy Malaysia
Prof. Dr. (Mrs.) Q. Khan
MBBS, MD (Microbiology)
• Head of Department of Microbiology, Gandhi
Medical College, Bhopal (MP), India
Prof. Dr. Anand Kumar Chaturvedi
• Principal, M.G.Homoeopathic Medical College
Jabalpur (MP), India
Dr. Bhupendra Shrivatsav
MBBS, DA, DHMS
• Superintendent, L.B.S. Homoeopathic Medical
College & Hospital, Bhopal (MP), India
Dr. Smita Nisanth
DHMS, D.Pharma, DNHE
• Lecturer in the Department of Pharmacy
Narayan Shree Homoeopathic Medical College &
Hospital, Bhopal (MP), India
• President, SAAHAS Society of advanced
Homoeopathic Sciences, Bhopal (MP), India
“ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS IN VITRO”
SIMILIBIOTIC: “Homoeopathic drug having action similar to the pathogenic effect of microorganism is a Similibiotic.”
The concept and even the attempt to use substances derived from one organism to kill another organisms (antibiosis) are almost as old as the science of bacteriology.(e.g. mouldy curd of Soya bean applied to boils).
This in one-way or the other resembles homoeopathic law “ Similia Similibus Currenter” i.e. likes are cured by likes. The Scientists Pasteur and Joubert 1877 confirmed this, they noted that anthrax bacilli grew rapidly when inocculated into sterile urine but failed to multiply and soon died if one of the “common” bacteria of the air was introduced in urine at the same time.1
With the breakthrough invention of the antibiotic, Penicillin, which is produced by Penicillin Notanum a mould, shown by Alexander Fleming in 1928, death due to infectious disease drastically, came down. Since then newer antibiotics came into the market and proved to have excellent therapeutic potential in curing the pathogenic manifestations. But amidst all this, drug resistance has become a menace for medical science. Since adaptation is quality of life and by mechanism of mutation, transformation, transduction & conjugation many bacteria have become resistant to drug .1 (Antimicrobials) It is proven beyond doubt that due to inappropriate and unethical use of antimicrobials, apart from drug resistance, generation of new mutant forms of non-pathogenic bacteria is posing a severe threat to the medical science (e.g. Non-pathogenic E.Coli has become pathogenic, once known for its symbiosis is now responsible for a wide range of GI & UI pathologies.)
Now host defence mechanism is the most important determinant of therapeutic effectiveness. Therefore stimulating ones immune mechanism would be more appropriate tool in combating the raising incidence of infectious diseases1, drug resistance and mutation.
Although to kill bacteria is not our aim since bacteria are not cause of disease, but disease lies in person himself (i.e. susceptibility) and bacteria is merely a secondary cause.2
In the wonderful science of Homoeopathy of defence mechanism is done by minuteness of Homoeopathic drugs, as Arndt-Shultz law States that “Large doses kill; Moderate dose inhibit ; and small doses stimulates”.
CHEMICAL NATURE OF HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS :-
Almost all homoeopathic drugs are made through serial dilutions of Alcohol i.e. Ethanol (C2H5OH) (Mol.wt. 46.07) and strength 83.1% w/w.5
Alcohol in strength 60% to 90% w/w is known for its antibiotic activity.1
POTENTISED HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS :-
Serial dilution reduces quantity of drug but immensely raises its quality.
MATERIALS & METHOD:-
1.Collection of samples:- Samples of infected discharges( urine , pus , bronchial lavage) were collected from Hamidia Hospital ,Bhopal and subjected to culture.
2.Recording of Symptoms:- Symptomatology of some cases were taken down and recorded for some available cases.
3.Selection of bacteria: - Bacterial Strains which were highly sensitive to allopathic drugs were selected with the help of Culture & sensitivity.
4. Homoeopathic drugs Selection: - Those Homoeopathic drugs which are frequently used for Urinary tract infection were selected and tabulated in Table - 1 with their potency. Since the hospital where this study was done had innumerable cases of UTI and most bacteria were isolated from urine.
5. Potency Selection: - Lowest potency available, highest potency and common potency available were selected to evaluate their efficacy.
6. Control :- Ethanol discs were prepared and kept as control. Each disc estimated to have 0.02ml of Ethanol (83.1%w/w).
HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS USED & THEIR POTENCIES
S.No. Homoeopathic drugs Potency
1. Apis Mellifica M, 10M, CM.
2. Arsenic Album M, 10M, CM.
3. Capsicum M, 10M, CM.
4. Cantharis M, 10M, CM.
5. Lycopodium M, 10M, CM.
6. Mercurius Solibiliris M, 10M, CM.
7. Medorrhinum XM, 10M, CM.
8. Pulsatilla M, 10M, CM.
7.Sensitivity Discs: -Discs of 5mm diameter of Whatman filter paper no.41 of round shape were cut and properly sterilized.4
8.Drug Concentration of Discs: - 0.02cc of concentration per disc of drug was achieved.
ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL SENSITIVITY TO HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS:-
1. Petri dish of sterile Mueller Hilton Agar (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) was prepared.
2. Gram Staining was performed.
3. Incubated broth culture at (30 ± 1oC or 37 ± 1oC) after obtaining turbility was standardised by Barium Sulphate Standard.
4. Inoculation:- Now MHA plate was inoculated with the bacteria and was kept at room temperature for 5 to 10 minutes since confluent growth was desired.
5. Application of Homoeopathic Disc :- Homoeopathic drugs sensitivity discs were taken with the help of flamed forcep and carefully placed on surface of medium and complete contact was made.
6. Incubation :- Plates were incubated at 35 o- 37 oC for 18 -20 hours.
7. Reading of growth inhibition zone :- Measurement of outer margin of disc to the zone of disc to the zone of inhibition was done in millimeters with the help of measuring scale.
8. No. of cases = 15.
9. Microorganism :- E.Coli , Klebsiella , Proteus , Staphylococcus coagulase-ve.(see Table No. 2)
TABLE NO. 2
S.No. Specimen for culture Organism isolated
1. Urine E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus.
2. Pus Klebsiella, Staphylococcus Coagulase -ve
3. Blood Staphylococcus Coagulase -ve
4. Bronchial Lavage E.Coli.
5. C.S.F. E.Coli
It is a wonder that although Alcohol in the strength 60% to 90% is known for its antibiotic activity1 Homoeopathic drugs in the present study have shown bigger GIZ than alcohol, which were kept as controls. This indicates that GIZ of Homoeopathic drug is not due to the effect of ethanol, but some other dynamic pharmacological message seems to be behind the formation of growth inhibition zone.
RESULT: Present study shows biggest growth inhibition zone of 3mm., which is considered to be resistent according to International standard, but in clinical practice it is generally considered to be weakly sensitive. Biggest growth inhibition shown by the medicine is given in Table No.-3
TABLE-3 Biggest Zone of Inhibition in (mm)
Potency 30 200 1M 10M CM
1. Apis 1mm 2mm 2mm 1mm 2mm 2mm
2. Ars. Alb. 2mm 2mm 2mm 2mm 1mm 2mm
3. Capsicum - 3mm 2mm - 2mm -
4. Cantharis 2mm 2mm 1mm 2mm 2mm 2mm
5. Lycopodium 2mm - 2mm 2mm - 3mm
6. Merc.Sol. - 1mm 3mm 1mm 2mm 2mm
7. Medorrhinum (6X) 2mm 1mm - - 3mm 2mm
8. Pulsatilla 1mm 3mm - 3mm - 3mm
Ehanol showed GIZ of 1mm .
Plate No. 1
Petri dish of sterile Mueller Hilton Agar with bacterial culture showing GIF around Homoeopathic discs.
Correlation of result with presentation of symptoms by the patient :-
Presentation of symptoms due to infection were ready taken down and redline symptom was the basis of selection of remedy. Now bacteria were subjected to culture to see sensitivity to homoeopathic drugs, to our surprise the medicine which was selected on the basis of redline symptoms was simultaneously effective on the bacteria in vitro in the form of growth inhibition zone around a particular medicine (which was selected on the basis of similimum) in particular potency.
This makes us conclude that when totality of drug Pathogenesis is similar to pathogenesis of bacterial activity and when this drug is inoculated on bacteria in vitro, due to its similarity in antigenic property, drug inhibits the growth of bacteria. (Similia similibus curentur)
Since the birth of Homoeopathy, from the use of very first medicine Cinchona in potentised forms for many ailments including malarial fever. It is evident from the literature that Homoeopathic medicines show high cure rate in cases of pathogenic manifestation. Authors clinical experimental experiences have also supported the view.
Present study shows that medicines are effective in dilutions where no drug molecule is detectable. (e.g. 30C ,1M ,10M , CM) and to such dilutions bacteria were weakly sensitive, where as allopathic drugs are of known quantity and comparatively shows a very big zone of sensitivity.
Probable Mechanism of Action :-
It is evident from abundant literatures, clinical verification and present studie that Homoeopathic drugs act by :-
1.Weak direct action on bacteria.
2.Indirect stimulatory action on host.
Direct Action :-
As seen in present study a medicine indicated on redline symptoms was also effective in vitro on bacteria in the form of its very weak sensitiveness.
1.A direct bactericidal action may be attributed to the property of alcohol to dehydrate cells.1
2.A very weak antibiotic activity is probably due to similarity of the medicine of particular potency which resonantly matches with bacteria not in structure but in pathogenic power and hence creating environment surrounding bacteria and hence interfering with nutritional uptake by bacteria consequently causing disturbance in metabolism, protein synthesis, information transfer and eventually causing death of bacteria.1
Indirect Action: -
In daily practice we generally give patient four globules or two grains absorbed in the medicine three times a day in a acute case say infection. This is: -
2 drops / 2 grains
Since, 1 drop = 0.05 ml (approx.)
1 grain =65 mg
Therefore, 130 mg contains 0.102 ml of medicine
Therefore, 0.102 x 3 times a day =0.306 ml (daily dosage)
The medicine gets absorbed on surface of globule or medicine when given orally this globule (carbohydrate) is catabolised into simpler molecules by action of ptyalin in saliva then absorbed by oral mucosa and the medicine moves across membrane by passive transfer process i.e. molecules penetrate either by passage through aqueous channel in membrane or by dissolving in membrane substance and absorption through oral mucosa is rapid and passage through liver is avoided since liver metabolises alcohol to aldehyde1 and whole medicinal configuration would be changed . Since blood concentration is 90% of medicine given orally i.e. 0.09 ml (approx.) is blood concentration.
Since Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for bacteria to be weakly sensitivity is 0.02 ml in vitro and 4 times of MIC is achieved in the blood hence the direct action on bacteria.
Dosage being 0.102 ml (approx.) conventional regime this is the Minimum Stimulatory Concentration (MSC) for host which should be maintained by the physician as per requirement. Now this circulating medicine resonantly matches with bacterial pathogenecity for its property of producing similar symptoms (pseudo bacterial) as produced by bacteria i.e. antigenic property. But the minuteness and potentisation of drug diminishes pathogenic power of drug and when recognised by reticuloendothelial system (RES) in turn stimulates the host defense mechanism (Ardnt -Shulzt law) i.e. local , specific , non-specific cellular or humoral immunity to eradicate the infection . Similar to the mechanism of action of vaccines.7
Conclusion: It is a wonder that Homoeopathic dilution of Ethanol or distilled water where in probability of finding even a single molecule of original drug is nil (after 24X or 12C) it is potent enough to inhibit growth of bacteria.
Overall review makes us conclude that Homoeopathic drugs used in infections are not antibiotics but are Similbiotics (similar to bacteria) i.e. we administer the patient, medicine which is capable of producing similar symptoms in patient, as produced by bacteria hence stimulating defence mechanism of host which kills the bacteria. This is a unrevealed area of research where in more research needs to follow which would promise a new hope in cases where bacteria have become resistant to each every known antibiotic. Rampant unindicated, inappropriate and uncalculated uses of Antibiotics are doing greater harms than any good to the human and vets.
Here SIMILBIOTICS (Homoeopathic) can play an instrumental role by not making the
bacterial stain resistant, at the same time ensuring no mutation, thus preventing the society
from hazardous new forms of infection.
1. Goodman L. S., Gilman. A; The pharmacological basis of Therapeutics; 4th Ed. The Mac Millan Company, New York, 1970.
2. Kent J. T.; Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy; Pratap Medical Pub. New Delhi.
3. Dewey W.A.; Practical Homoeopathic Therapeutics; B.Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 1992.
4. Stokes E. J. & Ridgway G. L.: Clinical Bacteriology; 5th ed. Edward Arnold, London 1983.
5. Banerjee D. D.: Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy; B. Jain Pub. Pvt Ltd. 1995, Delhi.
6. Boericke .W: Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica & Repertory: B.Jain Pub.
Pvt. Ltd. 1996 Delhi.
7. Park J.E. & Park K. ; Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine; 11th ed. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot, Jabalpur 1986.